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Krakow 2000

European City of Culture
Final Report
Krakow 2000 Bureau
Krakow 2001

Publisher: Krakow 2000 Bureau, 31-028 Krakow, ul. Św. Krzyża 1, Poland
Phone; +48 (12) 421 86 93, fax +48 (12) 422 13 81,


Introduction: Bogusław Sonik, Krakow 2000 Festival Director
Contents: Robert Salisz
Translation: Zuzanna Jachimowicz-Juruś
© 2001, Biuro Kraków 2000
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

Part I............................................................................................7
I History of the title ‘European City of Culture’..............................7
I.1 Programme ideas and the procedures set forth for shortlisting ECCs...................................7
I.2 ECC finance till 2000............................................................................................................8
I.3 ECCM network....................................................................................................................10
I.4 The European Cultural Month programme..........................................................................10
II European Cities of Culture of the year 2000...............................11
II.1 History................................................................................................................................11
II.2 The nine cities’ programme declaration..............................................................................11
II.3 The mottoes of the nine European Cities of Culture of the year 2000.................................12
II.4 ECC joint projects in 2000...................................................................................................13
II.5 The organisational structures of the nine Cities..................................................................16
II.6 Association of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000.........................................22
II.7 The budgets of the nine EECs............................................................................................24
Part Two.....................................................................................25
III Krakow’s efforts to obtain the title..........................................25
IV Institutional structure of the Krakow 2000 Festival....................26
IV.1 The master concept for organising the Festival..............................................................26
IV.2 Programming and supporting the Festival......................................................................27
IV.3 Executive structure.........................................................................................................28
IV.4 Festival project funding...................................................................................................30
IV.5 Cultural infrastructure and the staging of the Krakow 2000 Festival..............................32
V Ideas behind the Krakow 2000 Festival......................................33
V.1 Why Krakow?......................................................................................................................33
V.2 Objectives of the Krakow 2000 programme........................................................................33
V.3 Long-term significances of the Festival...............................................................................34
V.4 Creation of the Programme of the Krakow 2000 Festival....................................................34
V.5 The Programme of the Krakow 2000 Festival in the year 2000..........................................38
VI Production of the Krakow 2000 Festival projects.......................41
VII Promotion of the Krakow 2000 Festival.....................................45
VII.1 Advertising.....................................................................................................................45
VII.2 Public Relations..............................................................................................................46
VII.3 Participation in international tourist fairs.........................................................................46
VII.4 Cooperation with the central administration....................................................................46
VII.5 Visual promotion of the city............................................................................................47
VII.6 Production and distribution of promotional /advertising materials...................................47
VIII Sponsorship.......................................................................49
IX Information activities of the Krakow 2000 Bureau......................50
IX.1 Publishing......................................................................................................................50
IX.2 Press Office....................................................................................................................50
IX.3 Cultural Information Centre (CIK)...................................................................................51
X The Krakow 2000 Festival in public opinion polls.......................52
X.1 The Krakow 2000 Festival – Announcement of the results of the polls completed by TNS OBOP......................................................................................................................................52
X.2 Opinions voiced on the Krakow 2000 Festival by tourists visiting Krakow..........................54
XI European Cities of Culture 1985-2004.......................................56
XII Countries authorised to nominate the European Capital of Culture in the years 2005-2019..................................................................57
XIII Calendar of the Krakow 2000 Festival....................................58
XIV Selected Krakow 2000 Festival publications...........................65
XIV.1 Music.............................................................................................................................65
XIV.2 Visual arts / exhibitions...................................................................................................67
XIV.3 Literature.......................................................................................................................70
XIV.4 Theatre..........................................................................................................................72
XIV.5 Dance............................................................................................................................73
XIV.6 Interdisciplinary Festivals...............................................................................................73
XIV.7 Other.............................................................................................................................74
XV Bibliography.......................................................................79

What follows is a report covering the five years of the programme called Krakow 2000 European City of Culture. This document also refers to the various aspects of the project: programme and organisational issues relating to the Festival in Krakow as well as the international cooperation between the nine European Cities of Culture of the year 2000.
This report is an attempt at a synthetic recapitulation of the huge complex of matters relating to the organisation of the whole project. It is not, however, an encyclopaedic presentation of information on the Festival. Such a comprehensive history of the Krakow 2000 Festival would probably fill several hundred pages.
The report has been prepared by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, part of the structure responsible for preparing and implementing the programme. This is why commentary has been limited to an absolute minimum in this material. What is presented in this report is primarily facts; conclusions and evaluations are left to the Reader.
Bogusław Sonik
Director, Krakow 2000 Festival

Part I
I History of the title ‘European City of Culture’1
I.1 Programme ideas and the procedures set forth for shortlisting ECCs
The idea of creating a programme with this as its title was conceived back in 1983 by the Greek Minister of Culture, Melina Mercouri. As proposed by her, the project was intended to attract the attention of the European Union and its structures away from the then dominant economic issues to those of broadly defined culture.
The essential, primary objective of the programme was to emphasise the cultural wealth and shared heritage of Europe. To achieve this, the European City of Culture (ECC) project was characterised by considerable freedom as regards both the programme and the terms of application for the title. The only material requirement was for the city that was to hold the title for a given year to highlight the universal, European aspects of its cultural heritage, in continued cooperation with other cities/states within the Union.
In terms of implementation, the idea was quite simple: to select one European city and to honour it with the title of European City of Culture. What evolved over more than a dozen years of the programme was the manner in which the ECC for a given year was selected. The choice was always decided by the Council of Ministers of the European Union, although in the first period (1985-1996), the ECC title ‘belonged’ to another EU member state which was free to designate the entity responsible for implementing the programme. As early as 1990, the EU Council of Ministers decided that after 1996, when the first round of nominations was to end, a ‘competitive selection’ formula would be adopted. Consequently, instead of cyclical designation by subsequent states, the selection was made from among the applying cities.
That change enabled non-EU countries to participate and, additionally, efforts were undertaken to keep a balance between metropolises and provincial cities, as well as among different geographic areas. The principal objectives of the programme remained unchanged, however.

1 This chapter was prepared on the basis of the AECC Report. Author: Gianna Lia Coliandro

A new stage was marked by the year 1999, when the European Parliament issued a new decision2, under which each year – starting in 2005 – one city will be selected for the title of ‘European Capital of Culture’.
The main objectives of the programme were retained, namely: to highlight the cultural heritage of the city and its place in the cultural heritage of Europe. But applicants were confronted with new tasks. During the programme, the city that has been awarded the title should:

At that stage, the initiative was also open to non-EU countries. In addition, a relatively complex procedure for selecting the European Capital of Culture was formulated:
four years prior to the proposed launch of the project, another member state sends a nomination (or nominations) along with a recommendation, to the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, the Commission and the Committee of Regions. The nomination has to include a draft description of the cultural programme that meets the foregoing criteria;
each year the Commission forms a selection panel, which is to issue a report on the nomination;
upon receipt of the recommendation from the Commission, prepared on the basis of the report submitted by the selection panel, the Council of Europe will designate the European Capital of Culture for the year.

I.2 ECC finance till 2000
It was crucial, especially in the early period of each programme, to obtain funding from public sources. Originally, local-government subsidies covered 50% of the expenses and the national government provided another 40%. Over time, the growing interest in the project made it possible to attract more private sponsors for the European City of Culture programme.
2 Decision 1419/1999/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 25 May 1999 establishing a Community action for the European Capital of Culture event for the years 2005 to 2019, Official Journal L 166, 01/07/1999 8
I.2.1 EU support
Although the ECC programme is not the European Commission’s own programme, the Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG X) provided funding for the project from the very start. The Commission’s figures indicate that between 1985 and 1995 the European Cities of Culture and the European Months of Culture received support from the Community totalling ECU 2,241,000. Over time, the ECC began to be financed not only from funds earmarked for culture but also as part of such areas as urban renovation, training and tourism. This fact, combined with the increasing popularity of the programme, resulted in more EU funding over the subsequent three years (1996-1998: ECU 2,420,000) than during the previous 11 years of the project.
As regards EU funds earmarked for culture, during the years 1996-1998, ECC projects were financed as part of the Kaleidoscope programme, and then – as of 1999 – from the Culture 2000 fund.
EU support 1985-2000
1985 Athens 108,000
1986 Florence 136,000
1987 Amsterdam 137,000
1988 Berlin 200,000
1989 Paris 120,000
1990 Glasgow 120,000
1991 Dublin 120,000
1992 Madrid 200,000
1993 Antwerp 300,000
1994 Lisbon 400,000
1995 Luxembourg 400,000
1996 Copenhagen 600,000
1997 Salonika 400,000
1998 Stockholm 600,000
1999 Weimar 600,000
2000 9 ECCs 2,800,000

of which

1997 220,000
1998 250,000
1999 350,000
2000 1,980,000

In addition, a number of joint projects of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000 received grants from EU programmes totalling EUR 790,000 in 2000.

I.3 ECCM network
In 1990, Athens, West Berlin and Glasgow, all former ECCs, formed the Network of European Cities of Culture and Cultural Months (ECCM). The main task of the association was to exchange information and to stay in contact.
The secretarial tasks of the Network are taken up on a rotating basis by the cities. Meetings are usually held in the current ECC.

I.4 The European Cultural Month programme
In May 1990, EU Ministers of Culture decided to launch a new programme called the European Cultural Month. It was conceived in response to the growing interest on the part of countries both within and outside the EU. The objectives of the programme were similar to those of the ECC, but its primary significance was the fact that it enabled non-EU countries to take part, particularly those in East and Central Europe. The first European Cultural Month was organised in 1992 in Krakow.
I.4.1 European Cultural Months (1992-1999)
Year ECC
1992 Krakow
1993 Graz
1994 Budapest
1995 Nicosia
1996 St. Petersburg
1997 Ljubljana
1998 Linz, La Valletta
1999 Plovdiv

II European Cities of Culture of the year 2000
II.1 History
From 1985, the title of European City of Culture had only ever been conferred on one city each year. However, due to the significance attached to the turn of the millennium, decidedly more cities applied for the 2000 title than ever before. The first applicants – as early as 1993 – were Avignon, France; Bologna, Italy; and Prague, in the Czech Republic. In June 1995, they were joined by Bergen, Norway; Brussels, Belgium; Krakow, Poland; Helsinki, Finland; Reykjavik, Iceland; and Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
As it proved difficult to select just one city, the fifteen Ministers of Culture took a decision on 20 November 1995 to confer the title on all nine cities listed above.
The commentary that accompanied the decision stated that the cities were “requested to coordinate their programmes and develop common themes [of events]; they will thus be able to share in the organisation of a European Cultural Area in the year 2000.”
II.2 The nine cities’ programme declaration
The inaugural meeting of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000 was held in Krakow on 16-17 February 1996. During the subsequent meeting in Helsinki3, the nine entered into an Agreement on Joint Policies for the Year 2000.
In this document, the cities undertook to:



3 4―7 September 1996, AECC 2000 Meeting in Helsinki
In order to fulfil these resolutions, the Cities decided to adopt a common logo, use the name European Cities of Culture of the year 2000, and form an association. Another feature of the document was the agreement by the cities that in drawing up their programmes for the year 2000 they would place particular emphasis on projects that either involved all nine cities or at least two. Other undertakings of particular significance were to be those aimed at children and young people.

II.3 The mottoes of the nine European Cities of Culture of the year 2000
In order to address both the suggestions put forward by the European Commission and the declarations in their own programme document, the Cities agreed on a series of mottoes, each adopting one as its theme for the programmes for the year 2000.
The themes of each city were as follows:
Avignon Art and Creativity
Bergen Art, Work and Leisure
Bologna Culture and Communication
Brussels The City
Prague Cultural Heritage
Helsinki Knowledge, Technology and the Future
Santiago de Compostela Europe and the World
Reykjavik Culture and Nature
Krakow Thought, Spirituality and Creativity

II.4 ECC joint projects in 2000
The cooperation between the nine Cities resulted in a series of joint programmes that were staged in the year 2000, a total of 12 large and small common AECC projects. The most important of them are described below.
II.4.1 Communication
The theme of the exhibition is the history, contemporaneity and future of a variety of communication technologies (transmission of data, voice and image). Its aim is to highlight the role that communication plays in our lives. An attempt was made to place information transition technologies within a wide cultural context.
It is important to take this kind of a view not only to understand the present, but also to comprehend the vast changes that lie ahead of us down the road that passes through globalisation, integration (the integration of separate media such as television and the Internet), and the privatisation of communication technology.
Visitors had the opportunity to look at and try out all the exhibits, and learn how they work, what they are for, how they have developed and how they will continue to develop. The exhibition travelled to all the ECCs.
II.4.2 Voices of Europe
Voices of Europe gathered together in a single choir 90 young people from the nine European Cities of Culture of the year 2000, ten from each city. Celebrated choral conductors from each of the cities were also invited to take part in the project, by selecting the candidates, choosing the repertoire (one that was characteristic of their city) and preparing the young artists for the choir’s performances.
The first concert was in Reykjavik, and then the choir went on tour to all the other European Cities of Culture of the year 2000: Brussels, Helsinki, Krakow, Avignon, Bologna, Santiago de Compostela and Bergen. An additional performance was also scheduled for Tallinn, the city of Arvo Pärt, composer of one of the works performed in the concerts.
II.4.3 Codex Calixtinus
Krakow’s international project as part of the AECC network, Codex Calixtinus, occupied a unique place among all the musical events staged as part of the Krakow 2000 Festival. It was performed in Bologna, Helsinki, Krakow, Prague, Santiago de Compostela, and Reykjavik. The aim of this exceptional undertaking was to recreate the lost tradition of song as an element of the common heritage of Europe. The work was performed by a group of soloists representing different vocal traditions and choirs formed especially for the occasion.
The performance of Codex Calixtinus was not simply a concert of liturgical music. The project drew on the key spiritual element of Europe in the second millennium, Christianity, not only in respect of its religious values, but also of its contribution to culture as an inexhaustible source of inspiration in all areas. The performances of the Codex Calixtinus in six cities were also a reference to the common European tradition of pilgrimage, a form of migration that enabled medieval Europe, united by a single tongue, Latin, to feed on the same intellectual and artistic values.

II.4.4 The house of the Nine Cities
This project, jointly prepared by Brussels 2000 in cooperation with the European Parliament and the other eight European Cities of Culture of the year 2000, was the highlight of the ceremonial inauguration of Brussels 2000. Its intention was to emphasise the variety and strength represented by young artists at the beginning of the new millennium, and artists from all the nine European Cities of Culture were invited to take part in the exhibition. Their task was to design a work in their own medium of art, inspired by the Spinelli Building in the European Parliament. A huge multimedia exhibition was staged on 25 and 26 February 2000 with works from all areas of art: visual installations, contemporary music, video and performance art.
Krakow was represented by Maria Moroz, whose sculpture, entitled Glossarium–an Altar for Communication, made reference to the problem of the interpretation of place.
Kide (the Crystal) is an installation made of glass symbolising the connection between peoples and cultures, and was the symbol of Helsinki, City of Culture’s programme, and a greeting to the other Cities of Culture. A monitor situated next to each crystal provided a visual link between each City. The crystals, made from laminated sections of reinforced glass, resembled ice cubes. Kide, each 14
a different colour and sound, were placed in each of the nine ECCs, Krakow’s on the Main Market Square. In December 1999 the crystals were returned to Helsinki and arranged in an 18-metre tunnel of light on Senate Square.
Find, Finnish Design 2000, was an exhibition designed by Helsinki and displayed in all the European Cities of Culture. Find was dubbed a cloned exhibition, i.e. it was put on display in several places at once, and contained some of the latest industrial goods produced in Finland. These included furniture, textiles, designs, works of art and crafts, chiefly the products of small and medium-sized enterprises. More than 30 companies took part, inviting leading designers to develop modernised versions of objects manufactured by the companies especially for the exhibition. The items displayed in the exhibition were designed exclusively for mass production. The Krakow exhibition was staged at the Manggha Centre of Japanese Art and Technology.
II.4.7 Coast & Waterways
Rivers and seas are openly accessible arteries of communication. The life supported by these transport routes has always been a focus of interest and has forced people to develop the art of communication with other cultures, leading to cultural intermingling.
The Coast & Waterways project was aimed at highlighting the way that cultures mix with each other via nearby water routes. The artistic and cultural activities involved were presented in the form of transport routes and nodes.
Café9 was a joint project by the ECCs dedicated to art and new media. The object of the internet cafe undertaking was to create a platform for the exchange of information on all the projects created by the nine European Cities of Culture of the year 2000. The source of inspiration for the project was the European intellectual and social ‘cafe culture’, deeply rooted in youth circles throughout the world.
Café9, offering young people constantly open ‘windows on cafes’ in the other Cities, were set up in the European Cities of Culture between September and December 2000 and targeted a variety of groups, from young Net surfers and internet artists to inexperienced users new to the medium.
II.4.9 Faces of the Earth
This exhibition highlighted the different ‘faces’ of our planet and its geographical reality in a number of regions and countries of particular ecological or cultural interest.
The faces of Earth were revealed through historical and contemporary cartographic presentations, the latter including images received via multimedia technology (satellite photographs, computer systems, etc.) and artistic forms (pictures, photographs, etc.). These elements afforded a comparison of the physical image of the world with human interpretations and an insight into changes brought about by both man and nature itself.

II.5 The organisational structures of the nine Cities
II.5.1 Avignon
The programme was designed and carried through by the Avignon 2000 Mission, founded in 1998. The Mission operated within the framework of the Municipality structures, and all administrative decisions were left to the city authorities. On matters related to the programme, the Mission was directly answerable to the President of the City.
II.5.2 Bergen
Kulturby Bergen 2000 was a foundation registered with the Central Norwegian Register of Foundations and Limited Liability Companies. The Bergen Municipality was one of the foundation’s approximately 80 co-founding bodies.
The Board of Directors consisted of representatives from the local and regional administrative authorities, the private sector, the Tourist Board in Bergen, representatives nominated by members of the foundation (both from cultural and broad-based organisations), a representative nominated by the directors of Bergen’s cultural institutions, and the artistic director of the advisory committee (without voting rights on the Board).
In addition to the Board, there was also an artistic advisory committee:
2 members nominated by the directors of Bergen’s cultural institutions, •

The Bergen 2000 Office had wide-ranging responsibilities connected with the development and promotion of the artistic programme, and it appointed specialist artistic and programme teams. The Artistic Director of Bergen 2000 was Terje Gloppen.
II.5.3 Bologna
The Committee for Bologna 2000 (Il Comitato Bologna 2000) was subject to the regulations of the civil law and had the status of a private company. Bologna 2000 was under the direct supervision of the Guiding Committee, which was composed of representatives of the Bologna Municipality, the Bologna Province, the Emilia-Romagna Region, the University of Bologna, the Chamber of Commerce and the central government (the Ministry of Culture). The Guiding Committee had a broad range of powers and took decisions on matters of financing, the programme of events and the organisation of the Bologna 2000 Festival. In 1998 a special advisory group was also founded to provide advice and support to the Bologna 2000 Office.
The Office consisted of 45 people appointed by the Guiding Committee. It was staffed by full-time employees, occasional workers, and students. Matters relating to planning, programme administration, public relations and sponsorship were the responsibility of the Office, which was required to work together closely with the Guiding Committee and the Municipality Department of Culture.
II.5.4 Brussels
The Brussels 2000 Festival was the responsibility of a non-profit association consisting of a General Assembly and a Board. The Board was composed of official representatives of each of the Belgian national, regional, local and community authorities. Board members included:
The Mayor of the City of Brussels (President):

Other members of the Board included nine official observers (incl. six representatives of the private sector, one representative from the King Baudouin Foundation, the Intendant (Artistic Director), and the Director of the Brussels 2000 Office). Altogether the Board numbered 27 members.
The Brussels 2000 Office was staffed by full-time and part-time employees, occasional workers, employees delegated from other organisations and students. Some employees were directly involved with matters concerning the Office as a whole, while others concentrated mainly on managing individual projects, including the Brussels 2000 information centre. There were approximately 30 regular staff in the Office, working in the following departments: management, finance and administration, artistic co-ordination, foreign contacts and sponsorship.
II.5.5 Helsinki
The entity responsible for the Festival was a foundation constituted by Helsinki City Council, with partners including other cities and the state. The foundation’s steering body was a 15-member Board of Directors, made up of the Chairman and:

There were no other committees.
The Foundation employed around 40 people in the following departments: administration (finance), foreign contacts (information, marketing, sponsorship) and programme management (subdivided into five programme teams).
II.5.6 Prague
Praha 2000 was an independent public-benefit society. Its founder was the office of the Municipal Assembly. The Board of the society was composed of:

There was also a Project Selection Board and 8 Artistic Councils, covering theatre, opera and dance, music, film, literature, exhibitions, architecture, museums, and cultural heritage.
The personnel included full-time staff, part-time staff, and freelance staff. Some were directly engaged as part of the core team of the whole Praha 2000 programme, while others focused only on the management of particular projects. The permanent core staff numbered 16 people in 1999 and 24 people in 2000. They were distributed among the departments for management, finance and administration, artistic coordination, communication and sponsoring.
II.5.7 Reykjavik
Reykjavik 2000 was an independent office, set up by the City Council of Reykjavik. The office’s steering body was a seven-member Board of Directors:

In addition, there was a Finance and Sponsorship Committee, a Programme Committee and an Honorary Council.
The Finance and Sponsorship Committee was composed of 6 members, most of whom represented the private sector:

The Programme Committee consisted of:

The members of the Honorary Council were as follows:
President: the Mayor of Reykjavik; the Prime Minister of Iceland; the former President of Iceland; the Minister of Culture and Education; musicians; painters; ballet dancers.
II.5.8 Santiago de Compostela
Compostela 2000 was integrated in the public Consortium of the City of Santiago, with three administrations participating: the national government, the autonomous government, and the municipality.
The president of the Consortium was the Mayor of Santiago. Other members included:
representatives of the Ministries of Economy, Education and Culture;
representatives of the Cultural Advisor of the Autonomous Government of Galicia;
Delegate Advisor for the cultural project Compostela 2000.
The administrative body was the Executive Committee composed of the City’s Mayor (or his representative) and the Cultural Advisor of the Autonomous Government of Galicia (or his representative).
The Office team was responsible for coordinating events in the year 2000. Unlike in other cities, the Vice-President for Culture, Teresa Garcia Sabell, was directly involved in the selection of projects and the whole concept-forming process for the cultural programme.
Promotion and foreign contacts under the European City of Culture 2000 scheme were directly controlled by the Municipal Office for Promotion and Foreign Contacts of Santiago de Compostela.
II.6 Association of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000
II.6.1 The legal status and objectives of the Association
The decision to form the Association was taken during the first meeting of EEC representatives in Krakow back in February 1996. In July of the same year, the legal personality of the Association was decided.4 The Association of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000 (AECC) was incorporated under Belgian law, and the headquarters were located in Brussels. The primary aim of the Association was to assist the cities in the achievement of the goals suggested by the European Commission and those set forth in the programme of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000. The main objective of the AECC was to “promote, organise and develop common projects as well as activities that its members will realise in the capacity of European Cities of Culture of the year 2000, as well as the best and most extended international diffusion of these projects and activities.” (Art. 3 of the AECC Statutes).
II.6.2 AECC Board and Secretariat
The members of the board were the elected Mayors and Deputy Mayors of the nine cities with the exception of Bologna, Helsinki and Krakow, where the cities were represented by the ECC2000 Office Directors (Helsinki and Krakow) and by the Director of the Municipality Cultural Office (Bologna), respectively. The AECC Board held all the powers of administration with the exception of those covered by the jurisdiction of the General Meeting.
The presidency functions in the Association were undertaken by way of rotation, where each consecutive term in office of the various members was four months.
4 8―9 July 1996, AECC 2000 Meeting in Avignon

AECC presidencies:
Sept. - Dec. 1997
Jan. - April 1998
May – Aug. 1998
Sept. - Dec. 1998
Jan. - April 1999
May – Aug. 1999
Sept. – Dec. 1999
Jan. - April 2000
May – Aug. 2000
Sept. – Dec. 2000
The Secretariat provided a link for cooperation between the cities and also assisted them in their contacts with external institutions, in particular the European Commission.
The principal tasks of the Secretariat included:

II.7 The budgets of the nine EECs
The following table presents the budgets of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000. No comparison of the programmes of the various cities should overlook the budget each of them had at its disposal. As is indicated by the following table, Krakow had the least funds for implementing its programme for the year 2000.
Total budget (EUR)
Santiago de Compostela
*The budget for the years 1996-2000 totalled Euro 12,772,936.

Part Two
III Krakow’s efforts to obtain the title
As early as March 1995, Krakow City Council announced that 2000 would be the Year of the Krakow 2000 European Culture Festival5. The Krakow 2000 Festival would then probably have been held regardless of the decision of the Ministers of Culture.
In that document, the Council made it obligatory for the City Board to develop a strategy for the preparation of the Festival and to set up a permanent Festival Office outside the structure of the Krakow Municipal Office. At the same time, the Council both authorised and obligated the Krakow City Board to take all necessary action on both the national and international scale to obtain the title of the European City of Culture for Krakow.
The efforts proved effective: Krakow, like all the other eight applying cities, was awarded the title of European City of Culture of the Year 2000. A unique (both for the city and for the country) five-year programme was launched.
City Council Resolution No. XIV/153/95 of 15.03.1995 regarding the organisation of the Krakow 2000 Festival and application for the title of European Capital of Culture.

IV Institutional structure of the Krakow 2000 Festival
IV.1 The master concept for organising the Festival
In its resolution, the City Council formulated the Krakow 2000 Festival as a five-year project, to be implemented in consecutive rounds starting in 1996. This was unique, as no other ECC 2000 scheduled its programme for longer than one year. This solution made it possible to prepare the project better, to create adequate mechanisms and gain experience. On the other hand, however, the staff were doubly burdened, having to implement each round of the project and to continue to prepare the programme for the year 2000.
IV.1.1 First option
The preparation and staging of as huge a project as Krakow 2000 required the creation of a broad structure which would make it possible to achieve the goals that were set. Thus, as originally assumed, the preparation of the 1996-1998 programmes was commissioned to internationally recognised Polish artists – each of them was appointed patron of one of the consecutive years. The final shape of the programme for 1999 and 2000 was decided by the Programme Council.
The Honorary Committee was composed of VIP members, which ensured the adequate profile for the whole project, while the task of the Organising Committee was to accept information on and approve the organisational structure of the whole programme and accept both several-year and annual programmes and their budgets. The actual Festival programme was to be implemented by the Festival Office (the Bureau), run by an institution which would be independent of the Krakow City Board in legal terms and function under an agreement with the Municipality.
IV.1.2 Second option
The failure to implement the original concept for the formulation of the programme and implementation of the festival (as presented in the first option above) led to some shifts of emphasis and more precision in the delineation of prerogatives within the structure of existing entities. In April 1997, the Krakow City Board passed a decision regulating this issue6.
The document did not change the task of the Honorary Committee and the Organising Committee (now called the Krakow 2000 Committee). Under the resolution, the Programme Council was an opinion-giving body appointed to evaluate the projects submitted. The various members of the Council could themselves submit projects, as could the Krakow 2000 Bureau, which initiated such projects as Velvet Curtain; Mysteries, Initiations; or Seven Traditions. The Director of the Krakow2000 Bureau was also the Festival Director, responsible for preparing and staging the subsequent rounds of the Festival programme.
The decisive voice was that of the Krakow City Board, which approved the annual financial budgets of the Bureau on the basis of an opinion given by the Krakow City Council Commission for Culture and Commission for Promotion. Such an extended control system resulted from difficulties in cooperation with the Culture Foundation (which ran the Festival Bureau in 1996) and the consequent accusations voiced by representatives of Krakow’s City Council.
IV.2 Programming and supporting the Festival
IV.2.1 Programme Council
The first Programme Council was set up under the Decree of the President of the City of Krakow of 16 May 1995. It was composed of 18 members, mostly acclaimed artists and propagators of cultural life from all over Poland (Elżbieta Penderecka and Andrzej Wajda among others). From the outset, the intention was that the Council should be an active player, primarily though the formulation of the programme for 1999 and 2000. In May 1996, in order to make the Council’s
6 Resolution No. 319/97 of Krakow City Executive Board of 5 April 1997 regarding the rules for the creation of the programme for the Krakow 2000 Festival, the appointment and functioning – as part of the Krakow 2000 Festival – of: the Honorary Committee, the Krakow 2000 Committee, and the Programme Council of the Krakow 2000 Festival as well as the mutual relations with the Krakow 2000 Festival Bureau work more efficient, a Presidium of seven members was formed, and in July of the same year its membership was changed. Another change in Council membership took place on 1 April 1998, when a new Programme Council was appointed. Elżbieta Penderecka was Chairperson of the Programme Council throughout the whole period.
IV.2.2 Honorary Committee
In order to ensure adequate prestige for the Krakow 2000 Festival, the President of the City of Krakow appointed an Honorary Committee, inviting celebrities from the country’s political and social life to become members. Their role was to support the whole Krakow 2000 Programme with their personal authority. The City President’s invitation was accepted by the President of Poland, the Prime Minister and the Marshals of the Sejm (Lower House) and the Senate, to name but a few.
IV.3 Executive structure
IV.3.1 1996: agreement with the Culture Foundation
The executive structures of the European Cities of Culture are based on one of two formulas. In one, the institution that implements the project is legally independent from the municipal, regional and national governments, while the supervisory and audit functions are fulfilled by the representatives of the relevant authorities who are members of the governing bodies of these entities. In the other option, the festival office is set up as a unit reporting directly to the city government.
In Krakow, over the five years of the programme, both models were employed. It was originally assumed that the Festival Bureau would be run by an external institution. Pursuant to Polish law, the then authorities governing the city decided that the best solution would be to have a foundation run the Bureau. Following a competitive tender, the Warsaw-based Culture Foundation was selected. Under the agreement that was signed7, the task of the Culture Foundation was to run the Festival Bureau and the Cultural Information Centre. The Foundation was to receive specific Agreement of 25 January 1996 between Krakow Municipality and the Culture Foundation amounts of money earmarked for the progressive implementation of the Festival; its task was to find the outstanding funding.
This model did not prove effective and consequently in autumn 1996 the President of the City of Krakow terminated the Culture Foundation’s agreement, and efforts to create a new executive structure for the Festival ensued. On 6 November 1996, the President of Krakow appointed Bogusław Sonik Plenipotentiary for the staging of the Krakow 2000 Festival. Subsequently, under resolutions passed by Krakow City Council8, the Krakow 2000 Festival Bureau was formed as the municipality’s institution of culture, with Bogusław Sonik as its Director.
IV.3.2 Krakow 2000 Festival Bureau – municipality-based institution of culture
The structure of the Krakow 2000 Festival Bureau (Krakow 2000 Bureau) included the following Departments: Programme, Implementation, Promotion, Finance, as well as the Cultural Information Centre (CIK). The Bureau is managed by the Krakow 2000 Festival Director, who is nominated by the Krakow City Executive Board.
The Bureau’s primary tasks related to the staging of the Festival are as follows:
• to prepare the draft programme for the Krakow 2000 Festival
• to organise the consecutive rounds of the Festival
• to promote Krakow’s artistic and cultural events
• to contract cultural projects out to independent producers
• to carry out selected projects autonomously
• to poll public opinion on the perception of the festival
• to create and perfect the aesthetic dimension of the festivals
8 Krakow City Council Resolution No. LXIX/681/97 of 15 January 1997

IV.4 Festival project funding
From the outset, financing for the Festival was obtained from the following sources:
• Krakow Municipality budget
• State budget
• EU funds
• Private and public sponsors
• Proceeds from sales (tickets; logo licensing; publications)
IV.4.1 Funding: 1996-2000
Krakow 2000 Festival budget 1996-2000 (in EUR)
Municipality budget
State budget
Sponsors / Festival proceeds
Total Festival budget for the year
Total contribution of the various entities over the five-year period
Municipality budget
State budget
Sponsors / Festival proceeds
Total Festival budget
The financial structure of the Krakow festival reflects the experience of other European Cities of Culture, where most funds came from public sources. Funds obtained from commercial sponsors typically covered less than 20% of the budget. What made Krakow different from other cities was the absence of any prior financial guarantees from the city budget or – notably – from the state budget. The organisers were always informed of the amount of available funding only after the state budget and the city budget were finally approved for each year.
The problem was the same for all five years of the programme, but of course caused the greatest difficulties for the year 2000, seriously impeding programme planning. While the city authorities acknowledged the priority of the Festival and supported the programme each year within the limits imposed by their budget, the amounts of funding received from the state budget always remained an unknown quantity. The closer to 2000, the larger the prescribed percentage of the contribution from the central budget, so that the problem grew progressively worse. Quite often state budget funds were obtained at the very last moment and that only thanks to the kindness and personal intervention of politicians from the Krakow region.
The Festival Bureau as well as the city and voivodeship governments made numerous efforts to obtain formal assurances of financial stability for the Festival. In order to obtain a guarantee of financial support, the Krakow Voivode and the President of Krakow made a joint appeal to the President of Poland, requesting that the Krakow 2000 Festival be granted the status of a strategic project for the Republic of Poland. This action was supported by the Sejm (Lower House of Parliament) Committee for Culture and Media, which postulated additionally that the Krakow 2000 Festival should be granted a budgetary assurance for the year 2000. This would have made it possible to prepare the programme sufficiently early on and sign contracts with co-organisers. This position was presented in the Desiderata address to the Government of the Republic of Poland delivered during the session of the Sejm Committee for Culture on 22 September 1998. Yet Polish law ultimately prevented the Festival from obtaining such a long-term guarantee. Consequently, the amount of funding from the central budget for 1999 was communicated to the Festival Bureau in February of that year, and for 2000 not until March, nearly three months into the programme!

IV.5 Cultural infrastructure and the staging of the Krakow 2000 Festival
The title of European City of Culture offered an opportunity to improve Krakow’s cultural infrastructure. The goal was not only to renovate public facilities, monuments, parks and gardens, but also to build a basic support system for shows and concerts scheduled for the year 2000. Surprisingly, Krakow is the only big city in Poland without a large concert hall. The Krakow Philharmonic can accommodate an audience of 817, and the city’s largest theatre (also used for opera productions), the Juliusz Słowacki Theatre, has only 500 seats.
IV.5.1 Concert Hall
Originally, it was assumed that it would be possible to build a large concert hall for an audience of around two thousand. The project was to be completed as part of the Music Theatre, a construction project intended for Krakow for several decades now. In the agreement signed by the Krakow Voivode and the President of the City of Krakow in 1997, a special team was appointed for contacts with the national government as regards the project, and both the Voivode and the President of the City made a commitment to approach the state budget jointly to request funding for the project. However, as the project was not included in the state budget, the Music Theatre has not been built as of the date of this report.
IV.5.2 Multi-functional facility
An alternative solution was a multi-functional light-structure facility that would not take more than six months to build. It was intended initially for the main round of the Festival in the year 2000 and was subsequently to be used for various events: sports, shows, congresses, trade fairs and exhibitions. This project also failed to go through.
Due to the absence of funds for serious investment in infrastructure, what was completed was only low-budget projects improving the existing conditions. One of them was the renovation of the offices of the Cultural Information Centre, so that it could perform its tasks effectively in 2000.

V Ideas behind the Krakow 2000 Festival
V.1 Why Krakow?
In the declaration that accompanied the decision to realise the idea of the European City of Culture, the Ministers wrote that the project should expose culture in which historical heritage and contemporary development have their roots. The programme should also communicate to the European public unique aspects of the culture of the city, region or country concerned.
There is no doubt that Krakow matched the tenets of the programme specified in the initial declaration better than any other Polish city. It is here that Poland’s cultural history concentrates and over the centuries this has been the crossroads of the routes travelled by cultures, commerce, thought, religions, and nations in our part of Europe, the point of confrontation between the influences of the West and of the East. Despite its stormy history, Krakow has managed to retain its significance as a metropolis.
For Krakow and all of Poland, the festival was the best opportunity to present to the international public the unique place that this city occupies in the Polish consciousness and to confirm that this uniqueness reaches far beyond the borders of our region and country. Krakow has been able to show all of its assets: those of a city rooted in tradition and full of creative ferment; a city that is a historic site and a metropolis of tremendous creative potential; a city of artists, scholars and students.
V.2 Objectives of the Krakow 2000 programme
The objectives that the authors of the project set themselves were:
1. to present both historical heritage and recent creative work;
2. to present Krakow as a meeting point for the cultures of the West and of the East;
3. to cause the creation of new, lasting cultural institutions and projects of a high standard and international rank in Krakow, as well as to infuse more dynamism into existing cultural institutions;
4. to include the maximum possible audiences in cultural life – including people who usually tend to stay outside;
5. to reflect on Europe’s spirituality today and its rich roots, with particular focus on the Judeo-Christian culture;
6. to open up to the young generation attractive paths of spiritual and intellectual growth connected with the universal values of our civilisation, and to highlight, primarily through art, the models and authorities of fundamental significance for the spiritual identity of Krakow, Poland and Europe;
7. to promote cultural achievements and highlight the attractiveness of Krakow and Poland to tourists on the European arena.
V.3 Long-term significances of the Festival
2000 is a year of important anniversaries in Krakow: the Millennium of the Bishopric and the 600th Anniversary of the Renewal of the Jagiellonian University. But the Krakow 2000 programme was more than just an opportunity to celebrate the spiritual power of the city. It was also a chance to give some thought to the future of the city: it helped revise some stereotypes and give a presentation of some of the decisive material for the strength and opportunities of the city as a cultural metropolis today.
The Krakow 2000 Festival was also a challenge to Krakow: would it be able to stay in the centre of attention and become a significant spot on the cultural map of Europe also after the year 2000? The title of European City of Culture always opens up new opportunities for each designated city – including Krakow – and it is up to each of them to use these opportunities properly.
V.4 Creation of the Programme of the Krakow 2000 Festival
V.4.1 1996-1999
As originally assumed, the patrons were responsible for the programme of the successive rounds of the festival in the years 1996-1998. Andrzej Wajda (1996), the patron of the Year of Theatre and Film, prepared the programme for his Festival along two different tracks, so to speak. On the one hand, it was a presentation of the distinguished director’s own lifetime achievement. On the other, events in various areas of art were presented, perhaps best characterised by the title of the exhibition held in the National Museum in the autumn of 1996: That’s What I Like. 34
The presentation of the celebrated Polish director’s lifetime achievement and fascinations included primarily film showings. Events celebrating works that have impressed Andrzej Wajda the most included a retrospective presentation of Japanese films, the works of Krzysztof Wodiczka, a fight of dragons during a show staged by the Plasticiens Volants group, and a presentation of Polish painting and sculpture held during the exhibition in the National Museum, which has already been mentioned. Another element of Wajda’s year was the 5th Festival of the Union of the Theatres of Europe.
Originally, the 1997 programme was to be prepared by Zbigniew Preisner. Due to misunderstandings between the celebrated composer and the city authorities, he pulled out of the project.
In the end, the patronage over 1997, the Year of Poetry, was accepted by Krakow’s Nobel Prize winning poets, Wisława Szymborska and Czesław Miłosz.
Poetry, which dominated the 1997 programme, was presented in diverse forms. It manifested itself in the Poetry Tram and during a concert of artists representing different styles in music, but using their own lyrics. A grand outdoor concert at the foot of the Wawel Hill (and the Royal Castle) by Goran Bregović attracted an audience of several thousand. Numerous volumes of poetry were published, mostly by Polish authors. An interdisciplinary Festival Between Wawel Hill and Mount Giewont was organised for the centennial of the Willa pod Jedlami (Villa under the Fir-trees), the building that became the model for the Zakopane style in architecture. In 1997, the first round of the Ludwig van Beethoven Easter Festival was held.
The programme was crowned by the autumn Meeting of Poets from East and West, when poetry reigned in the whole city for several days, and hundreds of people listened to poetry read out loud during meetings with authors in churches and synagogues. Readers stood in several-hundred-long queues to get their favourite poets’ autographs.
The author of the programme for the Year of Music (1998) was Krzysztof Penderecki. The major events during that year were concentrated in two phases: in spring, during the Ludwig van Beethoven Easter Festival, and then during the Krzysztof Penderecki Festival in the autumn. We were offered an opportunity to admire the artists of the Munich Philharmonic, Mstislav Rostropovich, the Academy of St Martin in the Fields, and Sinfonia Varsovia. Just as the Easter Festival included performances of works by Haydn as well as Beethoven, so the autumn festival also included performances of works composed not only by Penderecki, but also by the grand masters who have influenced the Polish composer the most: Mahler, Stravinsky, and Dvorák.

The year 1999 was spent primarily on the preparation for the culminating round. Thus, the events that were held in 1999 somehow foreshadowed the programme of the year 2000: KIDE; the Provencal Nativity Scene; Mysteries, Initiations; Crossroads (Rozstaje), to name but a few.

V.4.2 The year 2000
Of the themes proposed by the nine European Cities of Culture, Krakow selected Thought-Spirituality-Creativity, as the one best fitted to reflect the city’s spirit. The two levels of activities aimed at creating the programme for the year 2000 oscillated around these themes.
The first step on the way to creating the programme was to define the notion of spirituality. To this end, a special session on the theme of spirituality was organised by the Krakow 2000 Festival Bureau in November 1997. It was attended by representatives of artistic circles and animators of culture, such as Father Jan Andrzej Kłoczowski (friar and preacher), Andrzej Wajda, Włodzimierz Staniewski, Jacek Woźniakowski and Krystyna Zachwatowicz.
The session considered the various aspects of the notion of spirituality as well as the possibility of translating it into the language of practice. In several task groups, guests from Poland and other countries presented programme proposals for the year 2000. Subsequently, the Festival Bureau commissioned a number of projects in the area of dance (Krakow 2000 Dance Festival), literature (Café Europa), music (Seven Traditions, Velvet Curtain) and theatre (Mysteries, Initiations; and somewhat later the Tadeusz Kantor Festival and the Stanisław Wyspiański Festival). The projects formed the core of the Krakow 2000 Festival in the anniversary year.
The programme for the year 2000 – which, as has been mentioned before, was created along two lines – is the result on the one hand of the active involvement of entities participating in the creation of the programme (Programme Council, Festival Bureau) and on the other of selection from among the projects offered to the Festival Bureau.
The former group included
• the Festival Bureau’s own initiatives (projects commissioned by the Bureau),
• projects submitted by members of the Programme Council.

The latter group included:
• projects yielded by a competition (submitted in response to a nation-wide competition announced in 1997),
• projects offered by external entities outside the competition,
• projects undertaken in cooperation with other European Cities of Culture.
All the projects were subject to preliminary assessment by the Programme Council, according to the following criteria:
1. compliance with the programme tenets of the Festival, including degree of relevance to Krakow
2. uniqueness and high artistic standard
3. attractiveness to a wider audience
4. credibility of the institution submitting the project
Pursuant to the Programme Council’s decision of 21 August 1998 and the decision of the city authorities, the Festival Bureau prepared a preliminary version of the programme for the year 2000.
The main criteria in the further assessment of the projects were their feasibility in terms of contents and finance; the credibility of the partners involved and their ability to implement the project; programme cohesion; and above all the financial and organisational capabilities of the Festival.
After the Programme Council voiced its final opinion, the full draft programme was submitted for evaluation by the Krakow City Executive Board on 26 April 1999. The original provisions in the State Budget for the year 2000, including the very small amount earmarked for funding the festival as compared to the actual needs in this respect, forced the Bureau to prepare the minimum version of the programme, which was accepted by the City Board on 9 December 1999. As some lobbying in Parliament resulted in increased subventions for festival events, the final version was prepared and then approved by the Krakow City Executive Board on 2 March 2000.

V.5 The Programme of the Krakow 2000 Festival in the year 2000
V.5.1 The message of the Krakow 2000 programme
As mentioned before, the programme of the Krakow 2000 Festival focused on the Thought-Spirituality-Creativity triad, making reference to joint European heritage and at the same time presenting the intellectual, spiritual and artistic qualities developed in Krakow and Poland.
This element was primarily manifested by the celebration of the 600th Anniversary of the Renewal of the Krakow Academy (which then became the Jagiellonian University), although other components were also included (e.g. the Krakow 2000 Historic Preservation Conference; the conference titled A Day of Culture – Freedom of Speech and Dialogue; Freedom on the Threshold of the Third Millennium – Opportunities and Threats, and other academic sessions), as well as educational programmes.
Celebration of the 600th Anniversary of the Renewal of the Krakow Academy
Educational programmes:


The events presented as part of the Festival above all highlighted the multidimensionality of this concept. The major projects referring to this theme can be presented in the cycle covered by the joint title The Faces of God. One of the most significant events on the theme was the Wawel 1000-2000 exhibition, organised by the National Art Collection in Wawel Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and the Archdiocese Museum. A considerable part of this exhibition was devoted to the millennium of history of the Krakow Archdiocese and to the Cathedral itself. Catholic spirituality was also manifested in the Treasures of St. Francis exhibition. Of special significance was the Codex Calixtinus project, reviving medieval liturgy from Santiago de Compostela. 38
This project was undertaken jointly by 6 European Cities of Culture.
In addition to Polish religious art in the Catholic tradition, the programme included events relating to Orthodox Christianity and Judaism.
A separate chapter of Polish spirituality and the Poles’ contribution to European spirituality is the idea of solidarity. The 20th Anniversary of the creation of the social movement called Solidarity was a perfect opportunity to remember and present its spiritual dimension.
The Faces of God
The Treasures of St. Francis
The Treasures of the Krakow Archdiocese (part of Wawel 1000-2000)
The Faces of God – exhibition
Drawings for the Bible. Marc Chagall. – exhibition
Codex Calixtinus – exhibition
Western Christianity
Forgotten Brothers - exhibition
The Art of Icon - exhibition
Pictures Painted with Prayer – exhibition
Eastern Christianity
Orthodox Church Music Festival
10th Jewish Culture Festival
The Power of Custom – exhibition
Other religions
The Gods of Ancient Egypt – exhibition
2nd Krakow Meetings of Poets. Poetry – Between Song and Prayer.
20 Years of Solidarity
This element – for obvious reasons – received the most exposure. The programme was conceived of in such a way as to present both the great heritage of the past and the achievements of the present. All the arts were represented: literature, theatre, music, dance, painting, graphic arts, photography, and architecture. The various events presented either European or Polish (including Cracovian) achievements.
Bridges to the Future
S. Wyspiański Festival
T. Kantor Festival
Mysteries, Initiations
International Literary Café
Alternative Europe
L. van Beethoven Festival
Great Performances Cycle
The Crossroads (Rozstaje)
Seven Traditions
Court Dance Festival
Velvet Curtain
Audio Art Festival
Masters of Jazz
Krakow 2000 Dance Festival
7th Krakow Ballet Spring
Wawel 1000-2000
The Treasures of the Jagiellonian University
Visual Arts
Visual Arts
Bridge to the Future
Malinowski – Witkacy. Photography; Between Science and Art
Ryszard Horowitz exhibition
A separate chapter of the programme was popular art, entertainment shows and traditional rites staged as tourist attractions. The Festival programme was developed in such a way as to strike a happy balance between the needs of the elite and broad-based audiences.
Krakow Legends – Wianki 2000 (The Floating of the Wreaths)
13th International Street Theatre Festival
Provencal Nativity Scene
Venetian Nativity Scene
New Year’s Eve 2000
The Krakow 2000 Festival was both local and European. The main theme, Thought-Spirituality-Creativity, fits in well with Krakow, which has always provided an appropriate atmosphere for a dialogue of cultures and diversified forms of artistic expression. Therefore, the juxtaposition of the local and the European was often merely a matter of appearances in the programme of the Festival, similarly to the juxtaposing of tradition and avant-garde.
VI Production of the Krakow 2000 Festival projects
Staging as big an undertaking as the Krakow 2000 Festival requires the involvement of a huge staff. In terms of organisation and logistics, it was an unprecedented event on a national scale. The production of over a hundred projects – including, among other elements, big festivals, one with over a dozen and the other with several dozens of events – could not be undertaken by just a group of individuals working at the Festival Bureau. Therefore, the role of the Bureau in terms of production was primarily to find producers for the various projects and to supervise their performance. Only a few selected projects were produced directly by the Bureau.
The Bureau's involvement in the preparation and staging of the year 2000 events was to:
obtain up-to-date information on the projects included in the programme:

As has been mentioned before, the programme projects were produced:
directly by the Krakow 2000 Bureau by external entities: in this version, the producers were for the most part the institutions that proposed the project. In other cases, producers were selected by way of a competitive tender.
Where the Bureau was directly involved in production, its tasks were to:


Where an external institution was responsible for producing a project, the Bureau’s role was to:


In total, in the year 2000, 121 major projects were produced as part of the Festival, including 656 events. The following tables provide more details.

VI.1.1 Programme in the year 2000 – statistics
Number of projects
Art form
Number of main events within the programme
Number of events held as part of the main schemes
Krakow 2000 Festival
Shows / spectacles
Visual arts / exhibitions
Interdisciplinary events
Opończa ('Cloak')9 project
Unique events / cyclical events
Krakow 2000 Festival
Number of events
Total Festival
of which:
Large festivals/events
Regular Krakow events incorporated into the Festival programme
Events held solely as part of the Krakow 2000 Festival
9 Opończa is a project presenting Krakow’s creative circles and associations.
Means of production
Number of events
Project idea provider
Krakow 2000 Bureau,
The Bureau’s direct production
Including 6 large festivals/events
Production by a company selected in a competitive tender

VII Promotion of the Krakow 2000 Festival
One of the main objectives of Krakow 2000 was to promote the culture of Krakow and of Poland as a whole. Another equally important intention was to show Krakow to the world, within Poland and even more so in Europe, as a city whose tradition and culture are inseparably connected with the culture of Europe. Achieving these goals would not have been possible without publicising the whole project, its ideas and the various events organised as part of the Festival.
This is why the promotional activities for 2000 were oriented primarily towards the propagation of the idea of Krakow as a European City of Culture, with special emphasis on the promotion of the Krakow 2000 Festival programme, and the various events within it. Therefore, the activities that were undertaken were aimed at reaching the maximum possible audience both in Poland and abroad.
In the autumn of 1999, a nationwide campaign was launched to publicise the Festival. Billboard advertisements appeared all over the country and commercials were presented on local and national radio stations. Additionally, a series of promotional events were held in Poland’s major cities.
Other publicity activities for the Krakow 2000 Festival included:
VII.1 Advertising
A. The so called ‘patronage’ contracts with media providers (Wprost weekly, Przekrój weekly, the Dziennik Polski daily, the Gazeta Wyborcza daily, Polskie Radio S.A.,, Businessman magazine, to name but a few). The promotional strategies included gaining media providers anew for each event. In each category (e.g. local daily newspaper, nation-wide daily newspaper, local weekly, etc.) just one medium was selected to assume patronage over the event. This strategy made it possible to reach all audience groups and, at the same time, given the huge number of festival events, it ensured sufficient advertising for the various occasions.
B. Advertising campaigns for the various events making up the Festival

VII.2 Public Relations
A. Presentation of the Festival in regular programmes on Polish public television – TVP
B. Autonomous productions and co-productions of films publicising the events of Krakow 2000
C. Presentations of the Krakow 2000 Festival programme before live broadcasts of festival events (large outdoor TV screen on the Main Market Square in Krakow)
D. Creation of a multimedia presentation of the Krakow 2000 programme and of what the city has on offer in terms of culture – in connection with Expo 2000
VII.3 Participation in international tourist fairs
In the years 1999-2000, the Festival marked its presence at all the major fairs for the tourist industry in Europe and in America. Thanks to cooperation with central institutions responsible for the tourist promotion of Poland, the Krakow 2000 Festival became the leitmotif of the presentation of Poland abroad. The following are the major trade fair events at which the Festival was publicised:
A. International Tourist Fair FITUR 2000 in Madrid
B. International Tourist Fair BTL 2000 in Lisbon
C. International Tourist Fair ITB 2000 in Berlin
D. International Tourist Parlour in Paris
E. International Tourist Fair - Chicago 2000
VII.4 Cooperation with the central administration
Cooperation with central administration units was another element of the overall promotion of the Festival and creation of Krakow’s image abroad. The cooperation with the Polish Tourism Organisation, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Prime Minister’s Office and the State President’s Offices made it possible to use diplomatic channels to promote the programme. An important element was the distribution via these channels of the Festival promotional materials.

VII.5 Visual promotion of the city
The exposure of promotional materials was of dual significance. Firstly, it created a holiday atmosphere and made the city more attractive in the eyes of both its inhabitants and tourists. Secondly, it constituted a further element of the information on the Festival events.
Major elements of visual promotion included:
A. exposition of Krakow 2000 posters on special stands marked with the Festival logo
B. exposition of banners in the city centre with elements of the Festival’s graphic line
C. advertising boards on city lamp-posts
D. exposition of Krakow 2000 posters and selected event posters in illuminated advertising cases installed at tram and bus stops (City Light)
E. two billboard campaigns (480 and 1000 posters all over Poland)
F. visuals on trams
G. billboards located at strategic spots in the city: airport, railway station
VII.6 Production and distribution of promotional /advertising materials
Prepared by the Festival Bureau, materials printed in large numbers of copies filled the gap in the cultural and tourist promotion of the city. Published in tens or even hundreds of thousands of copies, booklets providing information on Festival events and other goings-on in Krakow along with a map of central Krakow were the most significant among them. Never before had promotional materials been published in such huge editions in Krakow.
An important element which made the Festival present in the awareness of both Krakovians and tourists on a daily basis was the rich variety of souvenirs and everyday objects: T-shirts, pens, umbrellas, wallets, business-card holders, etc., available at points of sale all over the city.
Somewhat different was the significance of such materials as CDs, tapes, or books. Ex libris Krakow 2000 was first published back in 1997, as an important element of the Year of Poetry celebrations, and it was then that the first CD with the Krakow 2000 logo was released. From then on, the Festival participated in the publication of several dozens of books, sometimes to accompany exhibitions and other events held as part of the Festival, on other occasions as autonomous publications. The collection of CDs and video tapes documents some significant phenomena: sometimes it is the only form they have survived in (e.g. video tapes of Tadeusz Kantor’s theatre productions), and in other cases we are witnessing the demise of certain art forms (such as the folk music on CDs documenting the Rozstaje Festival).
The Krakow 2000 Bureau attaches great importance to these publications; they are tangible evidence of the achievements of the Krakow 2000 European City of Culture Festival.

VIII Sponsorship
The Festival’s strategy as regards sponsorship was to prioritise major sponsors willing to fund more than just one project. Set up each year anew, the sponsorship package included the conferring of the title of a Golden Sponsor of the Festival. In exchange for a specific amount of funding (increased each year as the Festival gained in popularity and the sponsorship offer became more and more attractive) a sponsor would receive advertising benefits relating to all the events held as part of the Festival.
That strategy made it possible – thanks to a relatively attractive package of benefits – to raise considerable amounts of money. However, in a situation where the Bureau cooperated with numerous entities producing the events and did not finance the various projects in their entirety, there was sometimes danger of a conflict arising between a Festival sponsor and the sponsor of the event funded by the co-organiser. All such disputes were resolved individually, on a case- by-case basis.
In 2000, due to the scale of the Festival, in addition to finding two Golden Sponsors, the Festival Bureau also looked for entities willing to fund each project separately.
The contribution of the private sector to the financing of the Krakow 2000 Festival was not different from relevant percentages in other cities. However, the percentage of proceeds from merchandising was lower, despite the fact that the Festival Bureau signed contracts with producers and distributors of advertising materials. The fact that interest in purchasing souvenirs with the Festival logo was smaller than in other ECCs is due to the peculiar nature of the Polish market.

IX Information activities of the Krakow 2000 Bureau
Implementing the information policies of the Krakow 2000 Festival demanded the creation of an adequate structure. Information policies targeting Cracovians and tourists were based primarily around the Cultural Information Centre already existing within the Bureau structure.
An important supplementary element was the publications prepared by the Information Department, e.g. the Festival’s quarterly magazine Maszkaron. Throughout the year, the website provided comprehensive information on the Festival and events organised as part of its programme. The Press Office has been responsible for contacts with the media since the autumn of 1999.
IX.1 Publishing
The most significant task of the Information Department is the preparation and distribution of the free Maszkaron Magazyn Krakow 2000 (50,000 copies, 12 pages). The magazine is distributed to cultural institutions (theatres, cinemas, libraries), to schools and universities, and to churches, cafes and hotels in Krakow, the Malopolskie Voivodeship and Poland’s major cities.
Important tools used to inform the public about the Festival were high-circulation leaflets containing the Calendar of Events forming the Krakow 2000 Festival (Polish: 84,000 copies.; English: 120,000 copies; French: 40,000 copies; German: 15,000 copies).
Also worthy of note are brochures describing important developments and phenomena connected with the Festival (e.g. the Gardzienice Theatre, and the exhibitions The Power of Custom, The Treasures of St. Francis)
IX.2 Press Office
To meet the expectations of domestic and foreign journalists, in the busiest period the Press Office employed over a dozen staff. The media’s interest in the Festival can be exemplified by the following figures:
The Press Office organised 86 press conferences.
Each conference was followed up by a Bulletin e-mailed to approximately 250 addressees.
76 interviews were given.
The Press Office issued around 300 copies each of 89 Information Bulletins.
61 press releases on Festival events were issued.

Approx. 600 information packages were issued to the media and VIPs. •

The Press Office purchased nearly 700 photographs taken during the Festival events for the Festival Bureau and journalists.
A total of 776 photographs were delivered to Polish and foreign media.
210 CDs with Festival material were delivered to journalists.
Approx 180 promotional video tapes were distributed.
Additionally, 9 press titles were archived and 35 local and national titles were monitored for the exclusive use of the Festival Bureau.
The Press Office also pursued two information programmes aimed at keeping selected target groups updated on the Krakow 2000 Festival events. One of these groups included politicians, individuals representing the world of culture, and executives of major private-sector companies. The other group were the media, both those targeting general audiences and those specialising in some areas (mostly cultural) in 6 languages: English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, and Russian.
IX.3 Cultural Information Centre (CIK)
1. The essential task of the CIK was to provide information on the Festival events both at the CIK front desk and over the telephone. The information was available in at least 4 foreign languages (English, French, Italian and German).
2. Another crucial pillar of CIK’s information policy was the regular publication of the magazine Karnet – Krakow Cultural Events, updating readers on major cultural events in the city, with special emphasis on and more extensive description of those under the aegis of Krakow 2000. Apart from the regular monthly issues (approx 3,000 copies plus the website version at, in 2000 a special free issue was published to provide information on all major events organised in that year. This (bilingual) issue was distributed in 40,000 copies.
The Cultural Information Centre – as a subdivision of the Festival Bureau – naturally became a box office for all the major events of the Festival. The CIK was also one of the places where the Festival promotional materials (posters, publications, souvenirs, etc.) were available.

X The Krakow 2000 Festival in public opinion polls
Krakow has long been perceived in Europe as an attractive city. That is why it still heads the list of destinations for foreigners visiting Poland. This is primarily down to the image of Krakow as a city with interesting architecture. But competition among Polish cities – to say nothing of foreign ones – is intensifying. One intention of Krakow’s local government, the initiator of the Festival, was to make Krakow even more attractive for both tourists and investors. Consequently, it was intended to foster the growth of the market for tourism and related services.
What follows is a collection of documents that at least partly answer questions about the impact of the Festival on the city’s overall development and its role in the promotion of Krakow.
X.1 The Krakow 2000 Festival – Announcement of the results of the polls completed by TNS OBOP10
At the request of the Krakow 2000 Festival, TNS OBOP (a public-opinion polling company) conducted two polls, in November 199911 and a year later. This made it possible to assess the changes in respondents’ opinions that were effected over the year that passed between the two polls. The following is a publication of the results of the poll of November 2000, partly referring to those of 1999 as well.
Nearly half of the Polish population (46%) have heard that Krakow has been conferred the title of a European City of Culture of the year 2000. Last year the figure was 29%.
Over one-third of the Polish population (35%, compared to less than half of that percentage last year) have been exposed to some form of Krakow 2000 Festival publicity. Most people have seen the TV commercials (26%).
Respondents believe that the Festival will contribute primarily to the promotion of Krakow throughout the world (this view was expressed by 56% of the respondents, more than last year).
Dominant (44%) is the belief that the Festival targets primarily the international community.
10 Research commissioned by the Krakow 2000 Festival Bureau; Warsaw, 25-27 November 2000
11 OBOP (Public Opinion Research Centre), Warsaw 13-15 November 1999

So far the Festival has been the most beneficial to Krakow as a city – according to 35% of the respondents. Of those who have heard that Krakow has been recognised as one of the cultural capitals of Europe, 41% share this view. Somewhat fewer respondents (11% and 17% respectively) pointed to the profits gained by Polish culture as a whole.
A vast majority of respondents think that the Krakow 2000 Festival has contributed to the promotion of the city in the rest of the world (77%), and will attract more tourists (also 77%) and foreign investors (62%).
An overwhelming majority of Poles would like Krakow to be a European City of Culture in the future and think that such festivals are worth organising. Among those who know that Krakow already is a European City of Culture this opinion is shared by 85%. Objections are voiced sporadically (1% of the population).
More than half of the Polish population (56%) believe that the Festival will contribute primarily to the promotion of the city in the rest of the world. This belief has become stronger by 11 percentage points compared to 1999. At the same time, fewer respondents than last year (by 10 pp) hope the Festival will attract foreign investment which will result in the city’s further development – this opinion is currently shared by 29% respondents. Not many fewer (25% - exactly as many as last year) talk about the positive influence on the image of Poland in the world in the context of negotiations with the EU. As before, only very few respondents (5%) are inclined to believe that the Festival will not contribute to any changes. Over one-fifth of the respondents refrain from venturing any forecasts.
Nov 1999
Nov. 2000
Promote Krakow throughout the world
Attract foreign investment to Krakow, resulting in the city’s further development
Define a positive image of Poland in the context of our country’s aspirations to join the European Union
Will not cause any changes at all
Hard to say / I don’t know
These results do not add up to 100%, as each respondent was allowed to mark two answers
Among those who have heard that Krakow has been conferred the title of European City of Culture of the year 2000, definitely more respondents indicate the positive aspects of the Festival than the whole polled population. Respondents who have heard about the decision of the Ministers of Culture of the EU Member States on the special role of Krakow in 2000 were much less inclined to refrain from voicing an opinion (5%). As in the poll as a whole, very few individuals in this group (4%) say that it will not have any impact whatsoever.
Yes, definitely
Yes, on the whole
Not really
Definitely not
The Festival has not brought about any changes
Hard to say / I don’t know
Promote Krakow throughout the world
Attract foreign investment to Krakow, resulting in the city’s further development
Attract more tourists to Krakow
As regards the perception of the Festival, a dominant group of respondents believe that it targets primarily the international community – this opinion is shared by 44%, which is close to last year’s result.
An overwhelming majority of Poles (71%) would like Krakow to be a European City of Culture again and believes that such festivals are worth organising.
X.2 Opinions voiced on the Krakow 2000 Festival by tourists visiting Krakow
Conducted by the Krakow Branch of the Institute for Tourism12, this poll is somewhat different in nature from the one completed by OBOP. This is more detailed research, targeting a different group of respondents. But this is exactly why its results are of special importance: apart from
12 Festival Krakow 2000 w opinii turystów przyjeżdżających do Krakowa (z podziałem na rynek amerykański, niemiecki, francuski, brytyjski oraz ogółem); [Krakow 2000 Festival in the Opinions Voiced by Tourists Visiting Krakow (broken down into markets: American, German, British, and total), dr Tadeusz Burzyński, dr Stefan Sacha, mgr Rafał Kozłowski, mgr Paweł Pytlik; Institute for Tourism, Krakow Branch, Krakow, December 2000 54
general evaluations, it presents tourists’ expectations about Krakow, setting the directions for actions aimed at increasing the number of people visiting Krakow.
In 2000, for the first time in three years, there was an increase in the number of tourists that came to Krakow. The increase was 20%. There were also significant changes in the percentages of the various groups of visitors who sought overnight accommodation. In 2000, foreign guests accounted for 56% of visitors (compared to 45% the year before). 13% indicated cultural events as the reason that motivated them to come, and 8% said it was the desire to get to know the local folklore. Both these motivations should be associated with the Krakow 2000 Festival. Such a high percentage may cause a change in Krakow’s image: so far the city has been perceived as a collection of interesting historic buildings; thanks to the Festival, it is now believed to be a place of tremendous cultural potential.
Here are the conclusions presented by the authors of the report:
Krakow is perceived to a considerable extent as a city of interesting architecture and good quality of service in hotels and restaurants.
A method to increase the number of tourists is to change the image of Krakow by presenting it as a place having a lot to offer in terms of culture.
Such an opportunity is afforded by the city’s promotional success of the Krakow 2000 Festival. That is why a rich calendar of events should be kept up, and the most interesting ones should be turned into cyclical projects. This will bring in more tourist traffic and contribute to the development of business-related and motivation-based tourism, characterised by considerable profitability
Promotional activities should be based on forms of publicity that are popular abroad: CD-ROMs, press conferences, study trips, etc.
Improvements to signs directing tourists around the city and other forms of tourist information are a must.
The preferences of tourists who visit the city should be the object of ongoing research – not only in summertime.

XI European Cities of Culture 1985-2004
1985 Athens
1986 Florence
1987 Amsterdam
1988 Berlin
1989 Paris
1990 Glasgow
1991 Dublin
1992 Madrid
1993 Antwerpia
1994 Lisbon
1995 Luxemburg
1996 Copenhagen
1997 Salonika
1998 Stockholm
1999 Weimar
2000 Avignon
Santiago de Compostela
2001 Porto, Rotterdam
2002 Salamanca, Bruges
2003 Graz
2004 Genoa, Lille

XII Countries authorised to nominate the European Capital of Culture in the years 2005-2019
2005 Ireland
2006 the Netherlands
2007 Luxembourg
2008 United Kingdom
2009 Austria
2010 Germany
2011 Finland
2012 Portugal
2013 France
2014 Sweden
2015 Belgium
2016 Spain
2017 Denmark
2018 Greece
2019 Italy

XIII Calendar of the Krakow 2000 Festival
Selected Events
26-28.05 Four showings with Wajda – presentations of A. Wajda’s films
28.05-6.06 retrospective presentation of Japanese films
15.06 November Night – TV theatre production showing in the Main Market Square
21.06-21.07 Polish Film Poster - exhibition
23.06 Wianki (The Floating of the Wreaths) – spectacle by Plasticiens Volants
The Procession of Kings (street event organised in 1997)
2-4.08 Public showings of K. Wodiczka’s works
16.09 Carmen funebre – a spectacle by Teatr Biuro Podróży
September – October – the Fifth Festival of the Union of the Theatres of Europe
10-17.10 Retrospective presentation of Akiro Kurosawa’s films
4-13.11 Ten Films that Shocked the World
14.11 Celebration of 100th anniversary of the first film projection in Poland
4-30.11 That’s What I Like - exhibition

10.01 Inauguration of the Year of Poetry
26-31.03 1st Ludwig van Beethoven Easter Festival
5.04-31.05 Krakow – a city of poetry – educational programme for young people
12.06 Inhabitants of the Tower of Song – concert
27.06 Goran Bregović’s concert
1-26.10 Between Wawel Hill and Mount Giewont – festival
4-6.10 A Meeting of Poets from East and West

6.02 The Inaugurating Concert of Krzysztof Penderecki’s Year
5.04 Concert by Orchestre Français de Jeunes
7.04 J.S. Bach’s Passion according to St. Mathew – concert by Collegium Vocale
8-13.04 2nd Ludwig van Beethoven Easter Festival
26.05 Oratorio concert to accompany the Sixth World Conference of Historical Cities
18.09-10.10 Krzysztof Penderecki Festival
20.10 Concert by the Westminster Abbey Choir
6.12 Extraordinary Concert of the Music Academy in Krakow closing Krzysztof Penderecki’s Year

25-28.03 24th Krakow Theatre Reminiscences
31.03-5.04 3rd Ludwig van Beethoven Easter Festival
7-9.05 Na krawędzi Tysiąclecia – krakowskie spotkania ZNAKomitości – (On the threshold of a Millennium – Krakow meetings of celebrities) – celebration of a jubilee of the ZNAK Publishing House
14-15.08 Rozstaje (Crossroads) – Traditional Music Festival
22.09-30.11 KIDE – interactive sculpture
23-26.09 Conrad and history – international conference
12-16.10 Mysteries, Initiations Festival
22.10 Zapis (Record) – literary meeting
18.11.1999-31.01.2000 Forgotten Brothers – exhibition
21-23.11 International Preservation Conference Krakow 2000
2-4.12 International Literary Café
3.12.1999-12.01.2000 Provencal Nativity Scene
14.12.1999-29.07.2000 The Faces of God – exhibition

15.01 Grand Opening of the Krakow 2000 Festival
9.01 Seven Traditions – cycle of concerts presenting the oldest traditions of sung prayer – Schola Węgajty; St. Michael Choir from Estonia
10-16.01 Orthodox Church Music Festival
15.01-15.03 Pictures Painted with Prayer – exhibition of East-Christian icons
2-28.02 Find – exhibition of Finnish industrial design
8.02-31.03 Libraries 2000 – Cities of European Culture. Literature. - panel exhibition
25-27.02 The House of the 9 Cities - Glossary Altar Maria Moroz (Brussels – joint opening ceremony)
11-12.03 The Young in Krakow 2000: Małopolska Internet Days 2000
19.03 The Young in Krakow 2000: Ognik (Small Fire)
19, 20.03 The Great Performances Series – Concert by the Norddeutscher Rundfunk
23-27.03 Alternative Europe – Zaduch – Duszność – Duchowość (Stuffiness - Soulness - Spirituality) – 25th Krakow Theatre Reminiscences
25.03 The Great Performances Series – concert by Concentus Musicus
25.03-15.06 Prague in Krakow - Krakow in Prague – exhibitions and workshops, (Krakow, Prague)
31.03 Europe’s culture in archived documents – permanent internet presentation of 9 ECCs
1-2.04 Jubilee of Tygodnik Powszechny weekly
8.04 Road, Life, Love - Easter Oratorio
13-14.04 The Young in Krakow 2000: Takie Rzeczypospolite będą... – educational conference
18-24.04 4th Ludwig van Beethoven Easter Festival
29.04-25.05 Ryszard Horowitz – photography exhibition
1-2.05 Seventh Krakow Ballet Spring - Hubbard Street Dance Chicago (ballet potpourri: 1.05 Rassemblement, Let’s Call the Whole Thing Off, Sechs Tänze (Six Dances), Nine Sintra Songs; 2.05 Jardi Tancat (Enclosed garden), Quartet for IV..., Sechs Tänze (Six Dances), The Envelope, The 40’s)
5, 6.05 Seventh Krakow Ballet Spring - Decouflé (a two-part show by Shazaml Triton)
5.05 A Day of Culture – Freedom of Speech and Dialogue. Freedom at the Threshold of the Third Millennium - Opportunities and Threats - a conference
5.05-15.09 Wawel 1000-2000 – exhibition
Royal Castle on Wawel Hill – 5.05-30.07
Cathedral Museum 5.05-31.08
Archdiocese Museum – 5.05-15.09
8-12.05. 9th International Festival of University Theatres
9.05 The Great Performances Series - Wiener Akademie
11.05-16.07 and 10.09-30.10 The Treasures of the Jagiellonian University – exhibition commemorating the 600th Anniversary of the Renewal of the Krakow Academy
12-14.05 Dispatch of the Greek Envoys – event organised as part of the celebration of the 600th Anniversary of the Renewal of the Krakow Academy
14.05 The Great Performances Series – concert by the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra
23.05 Seven Traditions - Organum
24.05 and 26.05 Gospel - concerts
25.05-4.06 Stanisław Wyspiański Festival
25-27.05. Orthodox Church Music Festival
29.05-31.08 3rd International Biennial of Children’s Theatrical Puppet
May 2000 Do you know Krakow? – competition finals – the Krakow edition. Theme: “Renaissance and Baroque Krakow”
31.05-4.06 The Young in Krakow 2000: Permanent Festival
6-9.06 The Young in Krakow 2000: European Meetings of Youth
7.06 The Young in Krakow 2000: Theme with Variations
9.06-23.07 Power of Imagination. Symbolism in Brussels - exhibition
10.06 The Gods of Ancient Egypt – permanent exhibition
10-28.06 6th Biennial of Visual Arts for the Handicapped
15.06-16.07 Tadeusz Kantor Festival – exhibition: Tadeusz Kantor. The Impossible
16-17.06 Because it’s only in Krakow...
19, 20.06 Seventh Krakow Ballet Spring – Boris Eyfman’s St Petersburg Theatre of Ballet (Russian Hamlet)
23.06 Seven Traditions – Capella Regia Musicalis
23-25.06 The Young in Krakow 2000: Pueri Cantores
24.06 Legends of Krakow – Wianki 2000 (The Floating of Wreaths)
27.06 The Great Performances Series – concert by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra
27-29.06 Mrożek 70
28, 29.06 Seventh Krakow Ballet Spring – La Scala Ballet Ensemble (Great Gatsby)
28.06-2.07 Krakowiak 2000 – Krakowiacy i Górale (Cracovians and Mountaineers) – folk art festival 61
29.06 Seven Traditions – Greek Byzantine Choir
1-2.07 Masters of Jazz – concerts
1-9.07 10th Jewish Culture Festival
2-17.07 Krakow 2000 Dance Festival
6.07-31.08 Summer Organ Concerts
6-9.07 13th Street Theatre Festival
14.07-31.10 The Power of Custom – exhibition
17.07-13.08 Malinowski – Witkacy. Photography: Between Science and Art. - exhibition
18.07 Seven Traditions – Micrologus
19.07 The Great Performances Series - Les Musiciens (Luxembourg)
20-27.07 “Madame Monsieur” – dance show, part of Krakow 2000 Dance Festival
25.07 Codex Calixtinus – medieval church music concert
27-29.07 Rozstaje 2000 – at the crossroads of traditions: Małopolska-Galicja-Karpaty – Traditional Music Festival
4-6.08 Court Dance Festival
13.08 The Great Performances Series – concert by the Bundesjugendorchester
18-20.08 1000 Years of the Hungarian State – anniversary celebration
19.08 Live Broadcast of Placido Domingo’s concert in Wrocław
27.08 Seven Traditions – La Petite Bande
1,2.09 Seventh Krakow Ballet Spring - Batsheva Dance Company -The Junior Company (fragments of Zachacha and Part, Dance)
2.09 Meetings 2000 – Lluis Llach, Jacek Kaczmarski, Leszek Wójtowicz – concert
3.09 Voices of Europe – concert
7.09-1.10 Bridge to the Future – International Print Triennial
18.09 Just a Bigger Wedding Party – outdoor spectacle
16-18.09 Muro Dipinto
16-17.09 Mishima’ Women by Yukio Mishima – presentation of the Euro-Japan Theatre du Sygne
18.09-30.10 Drawings for the Bible. Marc Chagall 62
19.09-26.11 Images of Death in the Polish Art of the 19th and 20th Centuries – exhibition
20.09-26.11 The Treasures of St. Francis – exhibition
26.09-6.10 Audio Art Festival
4.10-31.12 Libraries 2000 – Writers from the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000
6.10 Do you know Krakow? – finals of the competition for the Polish Diaspora. Topic: Krakow
7-14.10 Mysteries, Initiations – theatre festival
9.10-26.11 Tadeusz Kantor Festival - Certeses Sentides - exhibition by Antonio Tapies
9.10-31.12 Tadeusz Kantor Festival – Wandering with Tadeusz Kantor – series of exhibitions
13-20.10 TaliA – 4th Comedy Festival (Tarnów)
19.10-15.01.01 Piotr Michałowski on the Bicentennial of his Birth – monographic exhibition of paintings
14-29.10 The Young in Krakow 2000: MU Art Festival
16.10-10.12 The Young in Krakow 2000: When Energy Turns into Matter - exhibition
19-27.10 Velvet Curtain – contemporary music festival
23-26.10 International Preservation Conference Krakow 2000
26-29.10 Libraries 2000 – International Conference of the Managing Directors of Libraries in the 9 European Cities of Culture
29.10, 3-5, 10-12.11 Audio Art Festival
7.11-31.12 The Art of Icon. Church Paintings from Macedonia (11th-19th c.) – exhibition of East-Christian icons
10-21.11 André Delvaux – retrospective presentation of films
10-13.11 Second Krakow Meetings of Poets. Poetry – between Song and Prayer
15.11 EUROHEAD – Krakow (inauguration in Prague 9.10, inauguration in Helsinki 5.12)
16-19.11 The Young in Krakow 2000: European opinion exchange
16-19.11 The Young in Krakow 2000: Festival of ‘the Promising Ones’
Celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Solidarity Movement
8.11-13.12 Exhibition: Solidarity – the Crushing of the Wall
9, 10.11 International conference: The Road to Solidarity. Tradition of Polish Anti-Communism
14, 15.11 International symposium: The Idea of Solidarity Today
1.12-14.01.2001 Venetian Nativity Scene
1.12-31.01.2001 Communication – Heureka – multimedia exhibition
7.12 Krakow Cribs Contest
8.12-12.01 Common Wealth – industrial design exhibition (Polish products)
9-31.12 Tadeusz Kantor Festival - Memory/Loss – exhibition by Robert Wilson
15-17.12 Gala Dinner (Bologna – presentation of Polish cuisine)
31.12 Millennium Night – New Year’s Eve 2000/2001
JANUARY-DECEMBER Opończa (Cloak) – projects prepared by Krakow’s unions and associations of artists

XIV Selected Krakow 2000 Festival publications
The following are some of the publications of the Krakow 2000 Festival:
XIV.1 Music
Velvet Curtain – festival catalogue, published by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, Krakow 2000
Codex Calixtinus – concert programme, published by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, Krakow 2000
Codex Calixtinus – concert programme, English edition, published by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, Krakow 2000
Codex Calixtinus – concert programme, French edition, published by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, Krakow 2000
Codex Calixtinus – concert programme, Spanish edition, published by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, Krakow 2000






XIV.2 Visual arts / exhibitions











(presented chronologically)






Kraków 2000-Europejskie Miasto Kultury, published by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, Krakow 1999
Krakow 2000. European City of Culture, English version of the map, published by the Krakow 2000 Bureau, Krakow 1999

A booklet of Poczta Polska stamps issued to celebrate the granting of the title of European City of Culture to Krakow, April 2000,

XV Bibliography

  1. European Cities of Culture of the year 2000, AECC Secretariat. Gianna Lia Cogliandro, March 2001
  2. Raport OBOP, Warsaw 13-15 November 1999 and Warsaw, 25-27 November 2000
  3. Festiwal Kraków 2000 w opinii turystów przyjeżdżających do Krakowa (z podziałem na rynek amerykański, niemiecki, francuski, brytyjski oraz ogółem) [Krakow 2000 Festival in the Opinions Voiced by Tourists Visiting Krakow (broken down into markets: American, German, British, and total)]; dr Tadeusz Burzyński, dr Stefan Sacha, mgr Rafał Kozłowski, mgr Paweł Pytlik; Institute for Tourism, Krakow Branch, Krakow, December 2000


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